New Imperialism: Economy
The European colonies had a dominance of culture of 35% of the world, in the 1800s. Britain led the industrial revolution at the start. In the late 19th century, they also led the European countries in expansion. This was known as neo-imperialism, it gave Europe control of 85% of the world. All industrialized countries were having a bad time with the economy. Competitiveness was rising between countries because of this pressure and industrialization. For example, Britain was growing weak because of its reliance on raw materials while other newly industrialized countries were competing with them, especially Germany who had cheaper labor and newer factories.
There was a lot of political stress within countries at this time. For example, the United States of America was heading towards the great depression. Meanwhile in Britain, the political system was moving from a unified one to a separated one with labor unions, land owners, industrialists, and etc. Politicians were desperate to have new sections just so that they could get some votes behind them.
There was also a rise of tension because the balance of power in Europe was disrupted. Germany and Austria formed an alliance in 1871, later joined by Italy in 1882. Austria-Hungary made an alliance because they wanted to expand their region and wanted Germany’s help, while Italy wanted to set up colonies and build an overseas empire. All these were economic motives. Germany just wanted to prevent war on two fronts. That was the Triple Alliance. France broke its diplomatic isolation in 1894 and formed an alliance with Russia. Russia needed a loan to improve their economy, and France gained a useful ally this way. Britain later joined the alliance with France in 1904. Britain would not oppose France’s ruling of Morocco, and Britain would not interfere in Britain’s ruling of Egypt. This was known as the Triple Entente.
All those alliances started off with motives to fix economic and colonial issues, but ended up being used for war purposes. In addition, the countries that had colonies in Africa and Asia dragged the people that they colonized with them into the war. For example, Britain had a colony in India in order to make money but then when World War I came along, the Indians were dragged into the war. European countries argued about who got what part of Africa so that they could be ahead in industrialization. All these were economic motives that turned into war.
The origins of the information did not have specific authors. It came from historical documents. The limitation is that there is no specific author. These events happened long time ago, so anyone who wrote it would not have even been there to see it. It does not mention any witnesses in this. It was all taken from historical documents.
New Imperialism: Racism: Social Darwinism
New Imperialism was a period of colonial expansion by the European powers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Racism took an important role during that period, and within racism, there was an idea of "Social Darwinism." Charles Darwin did not come up with that idea, if that's what you're thinking. Unfortunately, his ideas of evolution from "On the Origin of Species" influenced many German thinkers in a bad way. Social Darwinism was developed by Herbert Spencer, who came up with "survival of the fittest." Basically, it was the idea that those people who are the fittest, such as the most beautiful, noble, wise, or creative. This is what he thought will make humans succeed through a hard competition, so that the world will improve.
Even though the major result of social Darwinism was the holocaust, it was still one of the important factors that contributed to World War I, specifically in Germany, where a lot of German philosophers were influenced by Herbert's idea. Ernst Haeckel, a famous German Darwinist, argued that Darwinism needed the abandonment of Christian morals and beliefs. Karl Vogt, a German zoologist and politician, said "a mentally handicapped child was closer in value to an ape than to his own parents."
The vision of "master race" inspired the minds of Germans at that time. Darwinists used the idea to justify war on states which they thought has lesser value than them. They believed that the destiny of the master race was to get rid of them and war was the way to do that. In their view, all races of countries were in competition to live, and those who would get in war would be destroyed. Another concept was called Lebensraum, which means "living space," was an excuse for Germany to conquering some of the countries around it. It was to build a vast empire and weaken the neighboring countries. It was striving to be the best in all fields, including land space and economy. Lebensraum has a bigger effect in World War II.
Imperialism happens when a strong country takes over or conquers a weak country because they want raw materials. They control the country economically, politically, and culturally. By the late 19th century, a man named Charles Darwin made a theory that animals evolved into different species and become humans; that humans were animals in the past. Many people criticized this idea because it didn't go along with their religion. Then came a British scientist called Herbert Spencer who used Darwin's theory and applied it to human society. Some say that he preceded Darwin in writing about evolution seven years ago in a book called, but no one took it seriously. After Darwin's publication, Spencer made the idea of social Darwinism which is the survival of the fittest: the strong will survive and the weak will die. Social Darwinism justified many acts such as colonialism, in which people take over other lands, suppressing the people. Not only that, but it opened the door for imperialism as well. If the natives of one's country couldn't protect it, then it is seen as unfit to survive, and therefore is conquered. All this imperialism was justified by racism. Some countries like the United States justified its taking over Philippines because it stated that they are racially inferior and can't govern themselves. Therefore, racism was a justification tool, especially that in the White Man's Burden poem, he describes non-white as half devil, half child. Social Darwinism and racism have indirectly led to World War One. During WW1, German Darwinists believed that their destiny is to get rid of the inferior races, and the only way to accomplish that is war. In their opinion, states were in competition for survival, that peace is just a stalemate in the non- stopping war of the survival of the fittest. They believed war was beneficial, because it got rid of the weak. Many other countries wanted war, but they would have said otherwise if they knew how long it will take. The idea of Social Darwinism was followed by many major countries; therefore they wanted to prove they are the strongest by winning the war. This is one reason why Germany wants revenge, because it lost and it didn’t expect it.
New Imperialism : Military Edit
Before the war Britain was already building up their power by increasing and improving their military in the navy and land because they saw that Germany was starting to become more improved and they couldn't allow it since it will interfere with their control of the trade routes and they don’t want to loose it. Of course that made Britain feel threatened and France was also a friend of Britain so it also made them feel threatened as well. and they all built themselves up.
A rivalry began between the nations because they all wanted to seem strong, and that was a sure sign that war and not just a war, a world war is close by and one reason is the military. The three entente (Britain France and Russia) used to hold secret meetings discussing how they will join their military so that Germany doesn't become strong.
Also Germany used to make deals with Austria-Hungary so both sides were hiding secrets. to add to that in this outgoing rivalry dreadnoughts were made. Dreadnoughts are battle ships, with guns installed, so its like armour in the sea. Germany and Britain started to make dreadnoughts to protect themselves and by 1911 Britain had 18 dreadnoughts already made while Germany had like 8. The reason Britain was working so fast was because it thought Germany might be able to control them or take away their trade routes and they couldn't allow it so they made sure they improved themselves as fast as possible.
I believe that the military disagreement between the nations and the secret meetings that were held are another cause of the war because if all those countries worked together they could've fixed the Serbia and Austrian problem in a week or even less. However because of the miscommunication they have together they cant work together and thats one of the reasons the war became bigger that its supposed to be. It threatened the peace within the area and made a huge problem. Also the fact that Britain likes to make sure that Germany never grows more powerful was a sign of competition and maybe a fight, of course the reason the war had two sides was because once Germany backed up A-H England needed to back Serbia up because they didn't want Britain to win. They ruined it For themselves, they should ally with all nations so that no fights and disagreements happen and if they did they can be solved very quickly. In the end war is inevitable.